Monday, May 15, 2017

Ireland's Ancient Musical Instruments

Drumbest and Derrynane Horns
National Museum of Ireland
Lough Gara, on the border between Co. Roscommon and Co Sligo, is noted for the number of archaeological artefacts recovered ranging from stone axes to saddle querns and bronze pins to bone needles. Amongst the more unusual finds reported was a bronze trumpet or horn end found on Inch Island and thought to date from 300-200 BC.
The island of Ireland is particularly noted for its collection of ancient musical instruments, covering more than 3000 years from the Late Stone Age through to the Early Medieval Period (4,200 BC – 1,000 AD).  Musical horns were usually found in hoards, occasionally associated with other artefacts. The Dowris hoard, for example, from County Offaly, was discovered in 1832 and included twenty-eight horns as well as axes, swords, spearheads, and hammered bronze buckets and cauldrons. This hoard is thought to date from the seventh century BC. Hoards tend to be located near burial mounds and ancient earthworks or under lakes and bogland that was formerly under water.
During the Late Bronze Age, there were two main types of horn in Ireland. One type was blown from the end and the other from a side mouthpiece. End-blown horns are mainly found in the southwest of the country, while the side-blown horns have a more even distribution. These were popular instruments and to-date over 122 have been discovered in Ireland, which represents over half the total number of Bronze Age horns that have so far been found in Europe and the Middle East. Some of the manuscripts the early missionaries brought to the continent contained images of trumpets and horns.
Loughnashade Trumpet
1st Century BC
The Loughnashade trumpet is one of the finest surviving horns of the European Iron Age. It was discovered during drainage works at the site of a former lake in Co. Armagh. Three other horns, which have since been lost, and a collection of human skulls and bones, were recovered from the same location.  Archaeologists believe this may have been a of ritual deposition. The trumpet dates from about the 1st century BC and measures 1.86 m in length. It is made from curved and rivetted sheets of bronze. The decorative flange at the end of the instrument is covered in an abstract floral design.
The Loch Erne horn was discovered during drainage work on the River Erne in the townland of Coolnashanton four miles south of Enniskillen in Co. Fermanagh. The wooden horn hooped with metal bands is conical, 58cm long with a metal mouthpiece.  There is an image of two of these horns being played as part of an early Medieval musical group in the Hiberno-Saxon Canterbury Psalter of the 8th century AD.
The Mayophone or ‘guth cuilce’ is undoubtedly the most unusual of all the Irish prehistoric instruments.   The original was found in a bog during turf cutting in the townland of Bekan near Knock, Co. Mayo in 1791 and is now preserved in the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. This item has been radiocarbon dated to the Early Medieval Period (7th–8th century A.D.) 
Originally a solid piece of wood, it was split from end to end and each of the pieces was then hollowed or grooved on the inside. It was tapered and when joined again, the grooves formed a circular and conical hole through the whole length resembling that of a trumpet or horn. The two pieces were bound together on the outside by a long piece of thin brass, about an inch and a quarter wide, wrapped around them in a spiral from one end to the other. The Bekan horn is 192 cm long and made from yew. The sounding end of the instrument was originally about 8 cm in diameter.
Wicklow Pipes (c 2,120-2,085 BC)
In 2003 six carefully worked wooden pipes were recovered during an archaeological excavation at Greystones, Co. Wicklow. This discovery represents the world’s oldest surviving wooden musical instrument and has been dated to the Early Bronze Age (c. 2,120-2,085 BC). Formed out of yew wood, the pipes were found lying side by side, in descending order and ranged in size from 57cm to 29 cm long, although not all were complete. The pipes had been hollowed out, making the internal diameters approximately 2 cm across. However, there was no evidence for finger holes.
Wicklow Pipes
In early 2005, the first composition for Wicklow pipes, double bass and marimba, by Michael Holohan was performed as part of a concert in Drogheda, Co. Louth.   The early age of these pipes and the complexity of the design and manufacturing involved, place them in the forefront of recent music archaeological finds.
Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world. The oldest musical instruments, usually bone flutes, have been found in deep caves in France and Germany and originate from the same time and near the first examples of cave art. Music has a long association with war and conquest. Some of the oldest visual images depicting war include horns, pipes, and drums.
World's Oldest Flute,
Geissenkloesterle, Germany

What are believed to be the oldest-known musical instruments in the world are flutes, made from bird bone and mammoth ivory, and come from a cave in Geissenkloesterle, southern Germany. This cave also contains early evidence for the occupation of Europe by modern humans - Homo sapiens. Scientists used carbon dating to show that the flutes were between 42,000 and 43,000 years old. Geissenkloesterle is one of several caves in the region that has produced important examples of personal ornaments, figurative art, mythical imagery, and musical instruments.
Ireland is noted for its collection of ancient musical instruments spanning more than 4,000 years, including 28 horns from the Dowris hoard, the Mayophone and Wicklow pipes. The oldest-known musical instruments in the world are flutes made from bird bone and mammoth ivory found in southern Germany, which are between 42,000 and 43,000 years old. Should you visit Lough Gara, listen carefully and, perhaps, you may hear that ancient horn echoing down the ages?

For further information please see:
John M. Coles (1967) Some Irish Horns of the Late Bronze Age, in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 97, No. 2

Sunday, April 9, 2017

The Caves of Keash and Associated Monuments

Caves of Keash
Some years ago, I watched the moon rising over Keash Mountain. As I stood still, looking up at the caves, I had a clear sense that the moon was moving and wondered what our ancient ancestors would have thought about this phenomenon.
Keash Mountain, also known Keshcorran, was formed over 300 million years ago at a time when there were huge rises in sea levels and the area would have been under the sea. Geologists believe that the caves were created over a period of 40 million years due to chemical erosion of the limestone rock.
View from the Caves of Keash

The Keash Caves are located along the western slopes of Keshcorran within the rich prehistoric landscape of the Bricklieve Mountains. Sixteen interconnecting caves and fissures penetrate the base of a 15m to 30m high limestone rock face which forms a narrow band mid-way up the western slopes of the mountain. The sun-god Lugh is first mentioned in connection with Keshcorran in the 'Children of Tuirinn'.  The area to the south of Keash was called Sliabh Lugha, and Lughnasa was celebrated on top of the mountain until the beginning of the twentieth century.
Archaeologists have found little or no sign that the caves were used in the Mesolithic, Neolithic or Bronze Age. Human remains, and fragments of bone such as brown bear (12,040-11,650 BC), red deer (11,950-11,430 BC) and wolf (11,260-10,960 BC) were also recovered from the caves. The Keash dates are important as prior to this, knowledge of the range of animals that populated Ireland at this time was uncertain. Other finds from the Keash Caves included an antler point, worked bone, a bone comb fragment, two bone needles, two fragments of bone needles or pins and a whetstone.  
The human remains uncovered included a number of human teeth found, along with the teeth of other species. One isolated adult tooth, recovered from the entrance to Coffey Cave (J), was radiocarbon dated to the early Iron Age (200 BCE – 30 CE). Other teeth found scattered throughout Plunkett Cave (P) may be later, dated from the Early Medieval Period (460 – 670 CE).
It is possible that these teeth may reflect some form of ritual tradition that continued over several hundred years. A tempting possibility is that the teeth may have been placed in the caves as part of ritual activities associated with the festival of Lughnasa. At nearby Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery 168 human teeth, representing 23 individuals, were recovered as secondary insertions in Grave 27 during the Iron Age.
A prehistoric stone axe was discovered in Plunkett Cave and may have been deposited there sometime between the Late Mesolithic and Middle Bronze Age. However, several Early Medieval artefacts were found at the same location giving rise to the possibility that the axe may have found its way into the cave in early historic times.
During the 1980s a substantial hilltop enclosure was identified on Keshcorran through aerial survey. Recent fieldwork by Tatjana Kytmannow (2005) has considerably increased our knowledge about the mountain. Two cists, a cairn with cist, a possible hut site, a large enclosure, a section of pre-bog wall, a massive 'megalithic' wall structure and a wedge tomb have now been identified suggesting a ritual complex, spanning a period from the Neolithic into the Bronze Age.
Aerial View of Keshcorran Cairn
Keshcorran cairn is the most westerly and highest tomb of the Keshcorran/Carrowkeel megalithic complex and is believed to hold an unexcavated passage tomb. Archaeologists believe that the cairn probably dates from the early middle Neolithic Period, around 3500 BC.
The Keash Caves feature prominently in the Early Medieval and Medieval myths. Marion Dowd (2013) points out that the caves are presented as:Marion Dowd (2013) points out that the caves are presented as: Marion Dowd (2013) points out that the caves are presented as:
‘potent places in the landscape, places associated with the Otherworld and supernatural beings, places that were feared and respected’.
In one tale, a hunting party, accompanied by the harper Corann, set out from the palace of the Brú na Boínne (Newgrange) chasing after a giant evil sow that was causing destruction and death. The enchanting music of Corann’s harp was said to have mesmerized the beast which allowed the warriors to slay it. Its enormous body became the mountain of Keshcorran.
The three Hags of Winter
Another dramatic story about the cave involves Fionn Mac Cumhaill who one day came across the three daughters of Conoran, known as the ‘Hags of Winter’. The hags set a trap for Fionn and bound him, sapping his strength using a cursed cord. Fionn was rescued when one of his men took the three witches by surprise and beheaded them.
In conclusion, the Caves of Keash are located along the western slopes of Keshcorran within the rich prehistoric landscape of the Bricklieve Mountains. The discovery of human remains, and those of animals such as the cave bear, the arctic lemming, reindeer, and Irish elk were found in the caves. These finds may reflect some form of ritual tradition that continued over several hundred years. A prehistoric stone axe discovered in Plunkett Cave may have been deposited there sometime between the Late Mesolithic and Middle Bronze Age although a later date is possible.
Several archaeological monuments including a cairn, large enclosure, and wedge tomb, have been identified on the hill-top. The Keash Caves feature prominently in the Early Medieval and Medieval myths associated with the Otherworld and supernatural beings. Over thousands of years the monuments in the Keshcorran complex have provided testimony to the importance of this area in ancient times. In the words of Sam Moore:

Kesh Corran creates a sense of place, a sense of identity and a memory of both.

For more information about Keshcorran see:
Sam Moore in The Corran Herald 2014/2015: Prehistory in the Bricklieve Mountains.
Tatjana Kytmannow (2005) Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Winter, 2005), New Prehistoric Discoveries in the Kesh Corann/Carrowkeel Complex, Co. Sligo.
Marion Dowd (2013), The Archaeology and Mythology of the Keash Caves, Co. Sligo in Dedicated to Sligo: Thirty-four Essays on Sligo’s Past, Edited by Martin A. Timoney.

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Ireland’s earliest burial site

Recently, analysis of an axe over 9,000 years old, found at Ireland’s earliest burial site, in Co Limerick, has provided an insight into the ancient burial practises of our hunter-gatherer ancestors. The highly-polished stone axe, known as an adze, was made especially for the funeral of a very important person, whose remains were cremated and then buried at the site. The axe, believed to be the earliest fully polished adze in Europe, was only used for a short time, and then intentionally blunted.
9,000 year old polished axe
Hermitage, Co. Limerick
The burial site on the banks of the River Shannon at Hermitage, Castleconnell, Co. Limerick, dates to between 7,530 and 7,320 BC. The site was discovered 15 years ago, and contained burial pits holding the remains of individuals who had been cremated. The grave appeared to have been marked by an upright post.
Archaeologists believe that this object was probably specially made for the burial and was used as part of the funerary rights, possibly to cut the wood for the pyre for the cremation, or to cut the tree used as the grave post marker.
Drawing showing Hermitage polished axe in position next
to wooden post marking grave
More evidence of life during the Mesolithic Period is gradually becoming known with around twenty important sites identified around Ireland. Mount Sandel, near Coleraine, Co. Derry, is the oldest Mesolithic site in Ireland and dates from about 8000 BC. However, the recent announcement that scientists had dated a fragment of butchered bear bone from a cave in Co. Clare to 10,500 BC, may push back the date for human occupation in Ireland by 2,500 years.  Archaeologists discovered the remains of two individuals in Killuragh Cave, Co. Limerick and these were dated to 7,200-6,500. The early Mesolithic in Ireland runs from 7000 to 5500 BC, and the later Mesolithic from 5500 to 4000 BC.
Lough Gara - Co. Sligo
Closer to home, the survey of Lough Gara by Christina Fredengren (2002) and a radiocarbon-dating programme carried out between 1995-2000, together with the artefacts, have shown that this lake was heavily used during the Mesolithic Period.  One of the posts found in this lake produced a radiocarbon date of 4230–3970 BC, indicating activity in the latest phases of the Mesolithic. A piece of brushwood from the same area was dated to the early Mesolithic, showing that there was human activity on the lake around 7330-7050 BC (Fredengren, 2002).
Mesolithic material has been recovered from other nearby lakes such as: Lough Allen, Co. Leitrim, and Urlaur, Co. Mayo. These two lakes are connected to Lough Gara via the river system
The Lough Gara collection of stone axes is the largest Mesolithic assemblage in the West of Ireland. Killian Driscoll (2014) points out that evidence for the Mesolithic Period in the West of Ireland has gone largely unrecognised. In areas such as Lough Gara and Lough Allan, the extent of the evidence has been overlooked.
Image of House
Mesolithic Period
The discovery of this very early axe offers a rare and intimate glimpse into the complex funerary rituals taking place on the banks of the Shannon over 9,000 years ago. Burials of the early Mesolithic period are extremely rare, with only a few examples in Britain, mainly from caves.

The Hermitage cremations reveal that ritual played an important part in life and death in the early Mesolithic period. It is now clear that the production of polished stone axes was also highly evolved by this time. The strategic location of Hermitage on the bank of the Shannon provided many important benefits for these early settlers. For example, they may have controlled a fording-point on the river which would have been a strategic trading location as well as a diverse catchment area for food. It also gave assess to the interior of the country by means of Ireland's longest river.

Tracy Collins and Frank Coyne (2003) Early Mesolithic Cremations at Castleconnell, Co. Limerick. Archaeology Ireland, Vol 17, No.2 (Summer,2003).
Driscoll, K., Menuge, J., and O'Keeffe, E. (2014). New materials, traditional practices: a Mesolithic silicified dolomite toolkit from Lough Allen, Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 114C pp. 1-34.
Christina Fredengren (2002) Crannogs: A study of people's interaction with lakes, with particular reference to Lough Gara in the north-west of Ireland

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Doogarymore to Ljubljana: wheels of time

Doogarymore Wooden Wheel - 400 BC
In the early 1960s, an ancient wooden trackway, built to carry people walking in single file, was discovered close to the Lung River in the Callow Bog, North County Roscommon and dated to 1165 BC. A wood and stone trackway from the same locality has been dated to 1100 BC. Myself and some friends had the privilege of assisting the late Professor Etienne Rynne in the excavation of both trackways (See Blog Post – 8th September 2008).
This ancient roadway was traced continuously over a distance of a quarter of a mile. Today, it lies largely undisturbed beneath a blanket of soft bogland, hidden from the world but is depicted on the Lough Gara and its Hinterland map of the area. It seems unlikely that the wood and stone trackway was used for wheeled transport as it was only about one meter wide. Perhaps, some time in the future, evidence of wheeled transport will be discovered in the area.
The first routes in Ireland were prehistoric trackways, some of which were later developed into roads suitable for wheeled vehicles. Usually, most surfaced tracks from this period were made with wood and were designed to facilitate travel through or into bogs. In prehistory and the early medieval period, before the construction of major roads, rivers and lakes would often have provided a means of travel and transport through a wooded landscape.
Corlea Trackway, Co. Longford
Trackways typically date to the early to middle Neolithic period, the Middle and Late Bronze Age, early Iron Age (c. 500-300 BC) and throughout the early medieval and late medieval periods. For example, the Corlea Trackway (Irish: Bóthar Chorr Liath) is an Iron Age trackway, or togher, near the village of Keenagh, south of Longford town, County Longford. It was known locally as the Danes' Road and was constructed from oak planks in 148–147 BC.
Two massive block-wheels, dating to about 400 BC, which were found in 1968 and 1969 in Doogarymore, Co. Roscommon, are the earliest direct evidence at present known for wheeled transport in Ireland. Several features of the Doogarymore wheels are also found in wheels from widely scattered areas in Europe which include one-piece and three piece types.
The wheel found in 1968 was left on the surface of the bog and, unfortunately, only two warped fragments survived. Dr. Lucas from the National Museum of Ireland investigated the 1969 wheel which consisted of three lengths of thick plank fastened together edge to edge by means of two large dowels. The wood of the planks has been identified as alder and that of the two dowels as yew.
The Doogarymore wheel revolved on the axle which passed through a circular opening in the central piece. This hole was provided with a long wooden sleeve which projected some distance on each face of the wheel and housed the end of the axle.
The oldest wheel in the world was found in Slovenia and is 5,150 years old. The Ljubljana Marshes Wheel is a wooden wheel that was found some 20 km south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, in 2002. The people who made this wheel lived by hunting and gathering in wood pile lake settlements like the crannog dwellers of Ireland.
Ljubljana Wooden Wheel and Azel
5,150 years old
The wooden wheel belonged to a prehistoric two-wheel cart thought to be a pushcart. Similar wheels have been found in Switzerland and southwest Germany, but the Ljubljana Marshes wheel is bigger and older. It has a diameter of 72 centimetres (28 in) and is made of ash wood, with 124 centimetres (49 inch) long axle made of oak. The axle was attached to the wheels with oak wood wedges, which meant that the axle rotated together with the wheels, unlike the later Doogarymore wheel.
Must Farm Wheel - 1100-800 BC
Cambridgeshire, England
In 2016 archaeologists working on the Must Farm Bronze Age site in Cambridgeshire, England, discovered the largest, most complete, and earliest example of a Bronze Age wooden wheel in Britain. It has been dated to 1100-800 BC, and measures one metre in diameter. This wheel is so well preserved it still contains its hub and is thought to be from a chariot or cart. It was made of three different kinds of wood: alder for the outer rim, oak for the axle and braces and ash for the dowels. This wheel bears many similarities to the two large block wheels found at Doogarymore.
The invention of the wheel arose out of man's trial-and-error efforts to move loads from place to place. The wheel of the Western world is a direct descendant of the Egyptian wheel, records of which go back to at least 2000 BC. Mention of the wheel is made in the Old Testament (the ark of the covenant was carried on a cart drawn by oxen) and it is possible that the ancient Hebrews derived their wheel from the Egyptians.
One of the reasons why the wheel was invented relatively late in human history is that metal tools were needed to chisel fine-fitted holes and axles. The ends of the axle, as well as the holes in the centre of the wheels had to be almost perfectly smooth and round. Failing to achieve this would result in too much friction between these components, and the wheel would not turn.
Whilst County Roscommon cannot claim credit for inventing the wheel, the earliest evidence at present for wheeled transport in Ireland comes from Doogarymore in the county. The oldest wheel in the world was found in Ljubljana in Slovenia and is over five thousand years old.  The axle of the Ljubljana wheel rotated together with the wheels, unlike the later Doogarymore wheels which were free moving. The Doogarymore, Ljubljana and Must Farm wheels share some common features and highlight developments in wheel/axel technology over some 5,000 years.

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Migration is not Something New

Early Skulls
Until recently, the earliest evidence archaeologists had for human occupation in Ireland was dated to around 8000 BC. However, scientists have recently dated a fragment of butchered bear bone from a cave in County Clare to 10,500 BC, thereby, pushing back the date for human settlement in Ireland by 2,500 years. At a time of mass migration in the world it is, perhaps, timely to consider our origin as a species and how humans went on to inhabit the globe.
Humans and chimpanzees are very closely related and separated about 7.4 million years ago.  There is only a 1% difference between the chimpanzee genome and our own suggesting that we have a common ancestor.
Today, modern humans or Homo sapiens, inhabit the whole earth. Looking back over the last half a million years, the picture was much more diverse, with three distinct lineages appearing: Homo erectus in Asia; and Homo heidelbergensis giving rise to Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and Homo sapiens in Africa.
Image of Neanderthal Man
The Neanderthals thrived in Europe for around 300,000 years before modern humans arrived. The reason for the demise of this successful species remains a mystery. Neanderthals occupied Europe for at least 100,000 years during a period when glacial cycles dominated the climate. Excavations in Ibex, Vanguard, and Gorham’s Caves in Gibraltar have revealed evidence of Neanderthal occupation dating to possibly as late as 28,000 years ago. This makes Gibraltar the most recent Neanderthal occupation site yet discovered.
By 200,000 years ago, many innovations had been made in stone tool technology. For example, large handaxes became less common and were replaced with a range of smaller tools in more diverse toolkits. Tools made of flakes were favoured over large cores. Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal and are the only existing species known to build fires, cook their food, wear clothes, and create art.
The first fossil evidence for any modern humans outside Africa comes from the Middle East, from  the archaeological sites of Skhul and Qafzeh in Israel, dating to around 120,000 years ago. However, this early expansion of modern humans was not maintained. A change to a colder climate may have driven those pioneers back into Africa. The expansion of our own species out of Africa that eventually led to the colonisation of the globe would start later – after 100,000 years ago.
Map showing the spread of humans
This dispersal out of Africa is believed to have started from Northeast Africa. Modern humans later spread worldwide, replacing earlier ancestors either through competition or interbreeding. They inhabited Eurasia (Europe and Asia) and Oceania (a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean) 40,000 years ago, and the Americas at least 14,500 years ago.)
Around 50,000 years ago, an improvement in the global climate, leading to the appearance of habitable lands where once there was desert, may have provided the opportunity for modern humans to spread into Europe.  Evidence from early modern human sites in Europe suggest that these early people moved into the continent along coasts and rivers, as they had done elsewhere.
Until about 10,000 years ago, humans lived as hunter-gatherers living in small nomadic groups, often in caves. Agriculture began independently in many parts of the world with different domesticated species. Hunter-gatherers already knew a great deal about plants and animals and often manipulated them or the environment to increase productivity. Farming entered Europe around 7000 BCE and was the main way of life across Europe by 4000 BCE.
Farming communities spreading into Central Europe around 5600 BCE had to adapt to bitter winters, heavy rainfall, and dense forests. They kept mainly cattle and farmed open river terraces. Farming spread through Western Europe and into other parts of Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe by 4000 BC.  Animals were initially kept for meat, hides, bones, and manure. Feeding animals on crop surpluses made them a food reserve, and large herds signified wealth and prestige. Domestic animals became far more important when people began using them also in other ways: for milk, wool, eggs, traction, and transport.
Examples of early metal working
The social importance of metals for making prestige objects with which people could show their status, led to the early development of metallurgy. Only later, with the development of alloys, did metal also become significant as a material for tools and weapons. Smelting copper and lead ores began in West Asia after 7000 BC, and by the sixth millennium BC casting was possible. By 2500 BC, metallurgy had spread through Europe. Bronze-working became widespread after 1800 BC with trade routes linking much of the continent circulating metals, particularly tin.
Prehistoric religion reflected people’s need to understand the world and explain disasters. Through rituals and offerings ancient societies sought to bribe or appease the divine forces controlling the world or its individual components. Since Neanderthal times, people have practised rites that showed concern for their dead, perhaps linked to a belief in an afterlife.
Newgrange Stone Age Passage Tomb
Burial in graves or tombs or under house floors, was common. Many societies practised other rites, including cremation, exposure, or disposal in watery places. Some thought it important to preserve the body and undertook mummification (for example, in Egypt and South America). Monumental tombs, such as tumuli, pyramids, and megaliths, could link the living and the dead to ancestral lands or sacred places.  
Humans and chimpanzees are very closely related and separated as recently as about 7.4 million years ago. Our ancient cousins, the Neanderthals thrived in Europe for around 300,000 years before modern humans arrived and may have survived until around 28,000 years ago. Innovation in stone tool technology aided the development and eventual spread of modern humans throughout the globe. Later developments in metal working and agriculture assisted this dispersal. Since Neanderthal times, people have practised rites that showed concern for their dead, perhaps linked to a belief in an afterlife.

Migration is not something new and, in a sense, we are all migrants whose ancestors were black and lived in Africa a long long time ago.

Further reading: Evolution - The Human Story (2011) by Dr.Alice Roberts
See also BBC DVD The Incredible Human Journey

Saturday, November 12, 2016

Sunken Cities: Egypt’s lost worlds

Photo: Christoph Gerigk (c) Franck Goddio/HILTI Foundation
In previous posts, I have looked at archaeological sites preserved in water. Over 450 logboats or dug-out canoes have been recorded in Ireland mainly in lakes and rivers. For example, a remarkable assortment of 14 logboats has recently been discovered in Lough Corrib, Co. Galway, dating from the early Bronze Age (c. 2,500 BC) to the eleventh century AD.
Estimates of the number of crannogs found on Lough Gara, Co. Sligo, range from 145 to 369 although a maximum of 190 is more realistic. The archaeological evidence suggests that crannogs, or at least platforms, may have been built in this lake in the Late Mesolithic around 4,000 BC.
Across the Irish Sea, the Must Farm settlement in Cambridgeshire, England, is one of the most complete Late Bronze Age examples known in Britain. The settlement consists of five circular wooden houses, built on a series of piles sunk into a river channel below and seems to have been built around 1300 – 1000 BC.
The discoveries of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus have challenged our perceptions of ancient Egypt. These two ancient cities thrived on the exchange and flow of people, goods and ideas, from around 300 years before Alexander the Great arrived in Egypt (332-331 BC). The cities sank beneath the sea over twelve hundred years ago. A large multinational team is studying the finds and the cities they came from and is slowly piecing together what life was like on the Canopic coast of ancient Egypt.
Thonis and Heracleion are mentioned as apparently separate cities in ancient Egyptian and Greek sources including the trilingual Decree of Canopus, issued in Egypt in 238 BC. Excavations on the site, however, provided evidence to prove that Thonis and Heracleion, were the same town. The underwater excavations uncovered the remains of a large sanctuary located on the central island, built from limestone blocks. Archaeologists recovered a pink granite naos (shrine) from which they established that the principal god of the temple was Amun-Gereb and that the name of the town was Heracleion.
Stele commissioned by Nectanebo 1 - Thonis-Heracleion
Photo: Christoph Gerigk (c) Franck Goddio/HILTI Foundation
A second discovery around the temple was an intact stele (a stone or wooden slab) bearing a decree by pharaoh Nectanebo 1 (r. 380-362 BC.) The stele indicates the Egyptian name of the town where it was erected: ‘The-hone-of-Sais’, that is, Thonis. The discovery of these two inscribed objects – the shrine of Amun-Gereb and the stele of Thonis-Heracleion – solved a mystery of historical geography. The archaeological site that archaeologists had located was both the Heracleion of the Greeks and the Thonis of the Egyptians.
Thonis-Heracleion was active from at least the seventh century BC, rising in primacy as the major trading centre in the fifth to fourth centuries BC. The excavations have revealed a sizeable collection of pottery and coins, the study of which reveals that supply of both to the city abruptly stops at the same time at the end of the second century BC. Shortly afterwards the main temples on the central island were destroyed in a catastrophic natural event. After the destruction of its major temples, the city appears to have been largely abandoned. Core samples taken from the sediments under the bay identified the characteristic signs of ‘liquefaction’, whereby the ground surface literally turns from a solid into a liquid.
Significant quantities of metals including copper, tin and iron, are listed among the imported goods brought to Egypt on Greek and Phoenician ships in a fifth century BC tax register, together with wine, oil, wool and wood. Egyptian exports to Greece included vital supplies of grain, but also natural resources such as alum and natron, which were especially important in dyeing. Egypt was well known for semi-luxury goods such as papyrus, perfume and amulets.
Religion and religious spaces (sanctuaries) played an important role in the lives of Egyptians and Greeks, as well as in their relations with each other. Religion could help in retaining one’s own identity and culture or provide a means of adapting to a foreign environment.
Pink Granite Garden Tank: Thonis-Heracleion
Photo: Christoph Gerigk (c) Franck Goddio/HILTI Foundation
Other significant artefacts were found around the temple. Close to the shrine of Amun-Gereb, a large basin of red granite was discovered, known as the ‘garden tank’ intended for the secret rituals known as the Mysteries of Osiris. Three immense red granite statues over five metres high, representing a king, a queen and Hapy, god of fertility, abundance and the flooding of the Nile, provide clear evidence of the temple’s scale and importance.
Excavation in the Grand Canal along the north side of the temple has revealed a substantial collection of artefacts that appear to have been ritually deposited in the waters. Many of these artefacts such as bronze ceremonial ladles, known as simpula, and ritual lead models of barques (boats), were associated with the Mysteries of Osiris, and help to illustrate the sacred character of this great waterway.

Colossal Statue of Pharoah
Photo: Christoph Gerigk (c) Franck Goddio/HILTI Foundation
Specially made lamps depicting deities spread across the Roman empire as far as Britain. A Roman lamp handle with Isis nursing Harpokrates (Horus-the-child) - c. AD 100-200), was found in Faversham, Kent, the Roman town of Durolevum. Faversham had a Romano-British temple and a Roman theatre. A temple of Isis was in use in London during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.
From at least as early as the Middle Kingdom (c.2055-1650 BC), the Mysteries of Osiris were the most important ritual celebrations to take place in Egypt each year. An effigy of the god, probably made during the Mysteries, emerged from the temple for a public procession in its golden barque (sailing boat), called Neshemet.
The excavations carried out in the towns of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus by the European Institute for Underwater Archaeology, brought to light ritual deposits and instruments linked to the Mysteries of the month of Khoiak. These objects reveal the sacred character of the Grand Canal, the waterway that flowed along the north side of the temple of Amun-Gereb.
An exhibition at the British Museum entitled ‘Sunken Cities: Egypt’s lost worlds’ ends on 27th November 2016.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Must Farm - England's Pompeii

Log Boat - Must Farm
In this post I cross the Irish Sea for a unique glimpse into the Late Bronze Age.

The Must Farm settlement in Cambridgeshire is one of the most complete Late Bronze Age examples known in Britain. The settlement consists of five circular wooden houses, built on a series of piles sunk into a river channel below and seems to have been built around 1300 – 1000BC.) Slightly later, between 1000 – 800BC, a wooden palisade was erected around the main platform.

At some point after the palisade was created a fire tore through the settlement, causing the platform to drop into the river below where the flames were immediately quenched. As the material lay on the riverbed it was covered with layers of non-porous silt which helped to preserve everything from wooden utensils to clothing. It is believed that when the platform burned down all activity at the settlement ceased and it was abandoned.
Pottery - Must Farm

Since the excavation began in August 2015, the Must Farm site has revealed everything from pottery to textiles and log boats to a wooden wheel. The settlement has one of the most complete Bronze Age collections of artefacts ever discovered in Britain, giving us an unparalleled insight into the lives of the people who lived there 3,000 years ago.

The roof of each round houses appears to have been made of rafters that joined in an apex over the centre of the building. It seems that turf was used to roof the homes owing to the large quantities of burnt turf deposited at the base of the channel. The presence of charred cereal roots in some of the turf suggests that the turf being used was cut from areas where crops had been cultivated.

The sediment also contained traces of clumps of burnt thatch which suggests the roof was made from reeds. This level of detail is something that most archaeologists would never expect to find when excavating a house of this period.

 Archaeologists believe that the floors of the roundhouses were made of large panels of woven, bundled willow-like wood supported by round wood. Several large well-preserved wattle panels were recovered from the site and archaeologists believe that these formed the walls of the structure.
3000 Year Old  Textile
           Must Farm

Among of the most delicate and striking items to survive are pieces of textile, which have remained intact for 3000 years. Bronze Age textiles from Britain are extremely rare and those that do survive are often in very poor condition and usually only tiny fragments survive. Incredibly, examples of textile from every stage of the manufacturing process have been recovered ranging from hanks of plant fibres, spools and balls of thread to woven textiles and twining.

The people who lived at Must Farm produced material of excellent quality. Some of the threads used in the creation of woven textiles are the diameter of a thick human hair. Each household seems to have been creating fabric and the preservation of these materials will provide a new level of understanding about textile production during the Bronze Age.

Very few of the artefacts found at Must Farm show any traces of decoration. All these artefacts have a very distinct style and appearance. This style appears to be a direct representation of the “fashion” of the day and were what people wanted in everything from pots to wooden objects.

The quantity and range of wooden artefacts found at Must Farm is undeniably astonishing. Large numbers of wooden objects have been recovered and many of these are unique and their purpose unclear. Very little of the wood seems to have been decorated or embellished in any way. For example, the dozens of wooden platters, buckets and vessels found are all undecorated and very simple in design but well-made and skillfully crafted.

Eight beautifully preserved prehistoric log boats were recovered during the excavation of Must Farm. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that the ages of these boats spanned a period of about 1000 years, with the earliest examples dating to around 1,750–1650 BC.
Wooden Wheel - Must Farm
In 2016 a large wooden wheel, measuring about 1 m in diameter, was uncovered at the site. The specimen, dating from 1,100–800 years BC, represents the most complete and earliest of its type found in Britain and reveals a high degree of craftsmanship.

Archaeologist found several buckets, also known as two-part vessels. These containers are made from hollowing out a section of log before inserting a base into the bottom of the log: creating a container. Alongside these finds archaeologists discovered a number of wooden “platters”, large and broadly flat objects carved from a single piece of wood.
Spear Head - Must Farm
Other finds from this site have included swords and spears which still had their handles intact. Bronze artefacts such as swords, spears and axes are often found in watery locations, such as lakes and rivers. There are many theories as to why metal is found in these locations, the most prevalent regarding it as a form of ritual, or votive, deposition. At Must Farm archaeologists have been fortunate enough to find metal artefacts still within their original use contexts inside the settlement.

Surprisingly, archaeologists have not found much refuse material at the site indicating that the settlement was fairly young when it was destroyed. Preliminary examinations of some of the timbers from both the palisade and the houses seems to show that the wood was still fresh when it was charred in the fire.

The Must Farm settlement in Cambridgeshire is one of the most complete Late Bronze Age examples known in Britain. The scale, quality and condition of the objects found at Must Farm have astonished archaeologists giving us an unparalleled insight into the lives of the people who lived there 3,000 years ago.

All photographs courtesy